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Use Cases

Automotive Use Cases

Synchronized Multi-Zone
The figure shows an example with two RSE displays showing the video playback of a DVD whilst the audio is transmitted on a totally separate path to the amplifier. Ethernet AVB allows all three to be precisely synchronized. The Head Unit can also transmit 8kHz alerts or voice to the amplifier on the same network without sample rate conversion.
Sync Multiple Cameras/Sensors for Sensor Fusion
The figure shows the scalability and flexibility that can be realized with a networked system. All camera and sensor data acquisition can be precisely synchronized to minimize stitching efforts. The ADAS units and HU can equally access the camera and sensor data.
Control Application With Redundancy
A fully networked car allows access to all sensors and cross-domain communication. Control messages can flow with minimal latency. Network Redundancy used for critical vehicle backbone.

Industrial Use Case

Industrial Robot Control
In Industrial Control, for example, a robot arm that works in conjunction with a light curtain could benefit from TSN. The operation of the robot itself requires deadline-based delivery of control traffic and sensor feedback. The control cycle for such an application can be in the 100s or even 10s of microseconds. The light curtain is intended to act as a safety measure to stop the robot should an operator come too close. The light curtain control cycle is less onerous than that of the robot arm; but, from a safety perspective, the alarm generated when the curtain is broken is even more critical and must be respected. Finally, there is operational monitoring of both the robot and the light curtain. While this traffic might not directly affect the operation, it is important for monitoring operational health, statistic gathering, and predictive maintenance.

ProAV/Milan Use Cases

For more than two decades, huge crowds have gathered at Bayfront Park in downtown Miami at the tail end of March for Ultra Music Festival, a massive three-day party with the world’s hottest and biggest EDM artists providing the live playlist. As the culmination of the annual Winter Music Conference and Miami Music Week, the festival has long flown L-Acoustics loudspeakers on a number of its stages. But this year marked the first time Unreal-Systems/AgorÀ USA was tasked with providing audio for the Main Stage, and the company deployed an enormous K1-based rig to keep the nightly crowd of 55,000 dancing.
Dead & Company’s 2022 Summer Tour, which kicked off in June at Dodge Stadium in Los Angeles, was supported by a reinforcement system headed by Meyer Sound’s new PANTHER large-format line array loudspeaker. PANTHER is the first line array system to offer AVB Milan™ protocol network connection directly to the loudspeaker cabinet. The band’s 2022 tour proceeds eastward with 20 shows scheduled in 16 cities, wrapping up at Citi Field in New York on July 16. Of the tour venues, four are Major League Baseball stadiums, one an NFL stadium, and one college football stadium, with the balance at larger sheds.
PEARL (Person-Environment-Activity Research Laboratory) is a massive space in which you can create life-sized environments – a railway station, high street, town square – to examine how people interact with the environment and other people in these types of places. Audio has arguably the most important role to play in convincing participants that the environmental role they’re playing is realistic. PEARL’s technical services manager, Joe Boxshall, chose to use L-Acoustics’ L-ISA spatial audio technology for this reason. Boxshall describes PEARL as “a real showcase” for Milan-AVB, being the networking element of the L-Acoustics solution. “With the Milan-AVB protocol,” he says, “as long as you’ve got some fibre to patch to, you can plug in anywhere in this building and it will work. It provides the ultimate flexibility: if I’ve got amplifiers here, I’ve got speakers. This comes from our world of theatres and concert halls where we’re used to having to run around and re-plug things.”
In South Africa’s second-most populous city, GrandWest is home to various dining establishments, an ice rink, and the renowned Grand Arena—a 5,000 capacity multi-purpose venue that has played host to world-famous acts such as Bryan Adams, Sting, James Blunt, Rammstein, and Kylie Minogue. In 2020, the venue underwent a complete refit of its PA system, with L-Acoustics K Series chosen for its ability to fulfill international touring riders and deliver the highest quality audio for many years to come. System processing is via two of LP1 processors, with four LS10 switches providing the highest quality Milan-AVB signal distribution to the LA12X and LA4X amplified controllers powering the system. Two DiGiCo Quantum 338 consoles with two SD-Racks fitted with 32-Bit cards handle mixing duties.
JWinner of 13 consecutive Pollstar Awards for Outstanding Outdoor Venue since 2004, Hollywood Bowl is the summer home to the Los Angeles Philharmonic and has been LA's signature live-music venue for nearly a century. A Milan/AVB system was installed in 2018, including 18 AVB (and Milan)-ready L-Acoustics LA12X and ten LA4X amplified controllers, completely refreshing and updating the Bowl's power infrastructure, and optimizing the performance of its K1/Kara system. "What the new amplified controllers also do is bring a new level of authority to the sound of the system. There has been a noticeable improvement in resolution and fidelity to the system since we installed them before our current season began. The sound, which was always great through the K1 system, is now spectacular."
A crowd of more than 58,000 gathered at the Avicii tribute concert at Friends Arena, in Stockholm, Sweden, in December 2019. System optimization and drive was supplied by 16 Meyer Sound GALAXY 816 and three GALAXY 816-AES3 processors linked via an AVB network running the Milan protocol. As for the AVB network and Milan protocol, there wasn't much to say, according to Audio Systems Tech Anton Söderberg. "It's been rock solid," he said. "Everything pops up on the screen and works like it's supposed to."
More than 80,000 Irish fans attended Ed Sheeran’s two shows in late April 2022 at Dublin’s Croke Park Stadium. Sheeran’s fourth world tour also marked the global premiere of Meyer Sound’s new PANTHER large-format linear line array loudspeaker. Supplied by U.K.-based Major Tom, Ltd. and suspended from daringly conceived mast and cable net rigging, the system was anchored by 212 PANTHER loudspeakers. The Dublin shows also were the first anywhere to deploy a Milan protocol AVB network from FOH mix all the way to the loudspeaker cabinets. The primary, Milan Certified GALAXY 816 Network Platform at FOH connects to a Milan End Point (MEP) network, configured as a star topology, which consists of one GALAXY 816 platform, three GALAXY 408 platforms, and 20 Luminex Gigacore 26i switches. As failover backup, the always-active parallel analog inputs were connected via a primary and secondary redundant Milan network with dedicated GALAXY units.
Opened in 2021, the YouTube Theater is a 6000-seat live performance space in Inglewood, California. The audio system leverages a Milan AVB audio network made up of L-Acoustics P1, LA12X, LA2Xi, as well as a Meyer Sound GALAXY and Luminex switches.
The Millenium Centre, a newly established privately-operated venue in Lausanne, Switzerland, offers an extensive range of services and boosts state-of-the-art entertainment facilities and top-notch utilities. In order to meet the demands of this sophisticated structure, advanced networked audio management with cutting-edge technology is crucial. This requires expertise in managing large-scale audio systems capable of handling a high number of channels and multiple technologies and protocols, particularly for providing immersive audio experiences in their expansive cinema hall.

Wireless TSN Use Cases

Wireless Use Cases in Industrial
The industrial segment has the most diverse set of use cases and requirements for wireless TSN. This segment has received significant interest and has motivated the development of the 5G Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communications (URLLC) mode. Closed loop control is one of the most widely applicable use cases given its generic control loop model (input + compute + actuation). Mobile robots are also an important use case as wireless is fundamental for mobility and flexibility and reconfigurability of tasks and routes. One unique aspect to be considered in some electrical power grid systems is the required coverage area, which may vary from local (e.g. substation) to wide areas (distribution and transmission). Industrial control systems require the highest level of determinism and reliability and rely exclusively on IEEE 802.1Qbv for scheduling.
Wireless Use Cases in ProAV/Milan
Professional Audio and Video (Pro AV) use cases can also benefit from wireless technologies. In many Pro AV scenarios, cabling is complex and costly. On a typical tour, several kilometers of Ethernet cables are needed and are transported from venue to venue for a total of 60-100 shows. Most issues arise from defective cable connections, which are hard to identify. Replacing cables with wireless connection can significantly reduce the overall cost of deployment and operation of Pro AV systems.
Wireless Use Cases in Low Latency Interaction
Emerging real-time applications that may also benefit from wireless TSN capabilities are gaming and augmented/virtual reality. These applications were described in detail in the IEEE 802.11 Real Time Applications (RTA) report [7]. High latency and jitter cause lag, which significantly degrades use experience. AR/VR applications also share some of the same requirements for bounded latency and low jitter.
Potential future use cases for wireless
Other use cases that require TSN-enabled networks, such as automotive and transportation applications, may also benefit from wireless. For instance, the wiring harness within vehicles, airplanes, and trains add significant production costs. If wireless technologies can provide the required time-sensitive media performance, it would bring value to such systems. However, due to stringent latency, safety requirements and regulations, use cases that have safety critical requirements are beyond the scope of this document and the current wireless standards in 802.11 and 5G. Use cases that require under 100 microsecond level cycle times are also considered out of scope for wireless. Such use cases may be considered in the future as wireless technologies evolve.